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Ontologies are one of the pillars of the Semantic Web.


There have been several definitions of what an ontology is.

  • An ontology is a formal specification of a shared conceptualization (Tom Gruber, see [1]). Many authors cite this definition.
  • The main thread of ontology in the philosophical sense is the study of entities and their relations. The question ontology asks is: What kinds of things exist or can exist in the world, and what manner of relations can those things have to each other? Ontology is less concerned with what is than with what is possible.. Clay Shirky in his critical entry Ontology is overrated [2]. He says this is the first meaning. AI people took the word and rather define it as "an explicit specification of a conceptualization.", pointing to Gruber.
  • ...

(If you add another one, please always cite the source as well)


  • Open Biomedical Ontologies
  • Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology
  • OpenGALEN Medical Ontology
  • Stanford Library of Ontologies
  • An Ontology for Engineering Mathematics(paper)
  • SUMO
  • WordNet
  • Quantum Mechanics Ontology
  • Engineering Mathematics Ontologies
  • DAML List of Ontologies (outdated)
  • NASA - Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET)
  • SchemaWeb (List of Ontologies)

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Ontology  Defined by  Tom Gruber  +

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